EDM on Global Ban at Westminster

An Early Day Motion was lodged at Westminster by Patricia Gibson MP yesterday about the Nuclear Ban. It expresses concern that the UK is not part of the Global Ban Treaty discussion; dismay that the mainstream media do not cover it; alarm at the imminent danger of nuclear war and its likely catastrophic impact, and the importance to the Scotland’s role as unwilling host.
An EDM is a formal proposal submitted by a Member of Parliament for debate in the House of Commons at the earliest opportunity but at no fixed time. Early day motions are rarely actually debated. Its main purpose is to draw attention to a particular subject or area of interest.
To support this EDM please contact your MP, whether you are in Scotland, or elsewhere in Britain, to ask him or her to sign the EDM to show support. You can see who has already signed here

The full wording of the motion is below
That this House is very concerned that no state which currently possesses nuclear weapons participated in the renewed UN discussions on a Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty, which will conclude in July 2017; believes that this is the most significant legislative move for nuclear disarmament for some time; understands that the Treaty will constitute an unambiguous political commitment to achieve and maintain a nuclear weapon-free world; is dismayed that these UN talks have not attracted more coverage from the mainstream media; is encouraged by the fact that more than 100 countries attended these talks despite the fact that Britain, France, Israel, Russia the US voted against the UN’s proposal to create a legally-binding treaty banning nuclear weapons; is aware that there is an ever-growing threat of nuclear disaster with international concerns over North Korea’s nuclear programme and a recent White House aide indicating that the US pledge towards a world without nuclear weapons was being reviewed; is further aware that expert analysis and evidence considered by the Vienna Conference in December 2014 showed with stunning clarity that the risks, accidents, mistake, radiation and climate impacts and the local, regional and global humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, have been hugely underestimated; and is mindful of the Scottish Parliament’s consistent opposition to nuclear weapons and their deployment in Scotland by the Government.

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Report 27 June & the new new draft

After the UN’s holiday weekend, and a new influx of campaigners fully briefed from the weekend orientation meeting, the International Campaigner’s morning meeting was highly charged. However, the new draft still had not arrived and we were not even fully aware of whether we were going to be allowed into the conference room.

Not withstanding, we used the time productively, with suggestions about reaching out to the campaigns at home in preparation for the work to be done next week when the treaty will hopefully be concluded. A new initiative, which had been discussed informally over the weekend, for the nuclear weapons states to find ways to work more closely and keep one another advised of the political and campaigning opportunities in our different environments was flagged up, and a meeting for those interested planned.

I was able to meet up with Frank Richards who arrived today. He will be completing the handover of copies of Tim Wallis’ book on refuting deterrence theory to a diplomat from each member state. The UK Abolition 2000 group have paid for these. Frank was pleasantly surprised that the job is so near to complete, and big thanks to our Andy for his help with that.

Then the draft came our and we had a chance to look at it and make some notes before the very important and informative side event presented by one of the ICAN founders, Dr Ira Helfand He is a Past President of Physicians for Social Responsibility and is currently the Co-President of our global federation, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, along with his colleague, Dr. Alan Robock, a Distinguished Professor of climate science at Rutgers University. Prof. Robock was the State Climatologist of Maryland, 1991-1997, before coming to Rutgers.’s His areas of expertise include climatic effects of nuclear war and effects of volcanic eruptions on climate. They presented a unique and critically important message about the dangers of nuclear war and climate change which was very compelling and technically robust and I think that their message would resonate powerfully for people in Scotland. The presentation had a very shocking and sobering impact, even amongst experienced nuclear disarmament campaigners.

We then held a campaigners meeting on the new draft, which has strengthened the provisions and the importance of civil society participation. In the general obligations finance is still not spelt out in the section prohibiting assistance and the terms around safeguards are still needing further clarity. Threat is not yet prohibited and the possibility is still there for withdrawal from the treaty. Sections dealing with victim assistance, environmental responsibilities and the disproportionate impact on victims and girls are greatly enhanced, and the revision is generally positive.

When we returned to the room for the session on the new draft, it was made clear by the President that the sections that require further work are not seen as complete and the co-operative approach was stressed as well as opportunities for diplomats and civil society participants to continue to work co-operatively. The afternoon session was again held with no reporting so I must only assure readers that the positive continuation of the work gives real hope for a strong treaty being completed within the time scale.

The meeting for campaigners in nuclear weapons states was brief, and our US colleagues are finding the political situation in the US very dispiriting when it comes to nuclear disarmament discourse. Sisters Ardath Platte and Carol Gilbert spoke with passion for the need to work across the options, political, diplomatic, spiritual and with non violent direct action. This message, and a reminder of the TP disarmament camp at Coulport was well received by the room.

Janet Fenton

Rebecca Johnson & Janet Fenton

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UN Conference to negotiate a legally binding treaty to abolish nuclear weapons

Scottish CND briefing note

In any referendum on independence, the people of Scotland have a rare privilege, the power to cast a vote which can lead to nuclear disarmament. In the United States and France there has never been an election where a party advocating nuclear disarmament had a serious prospect of winning. Support for disarmament is widespread across society and civic Scotland, beyond the Scottish National Party membership to include Greens, Socialists and many individuals who eschew party politics. If Scots reject nuclear weapons, the UK would not have an alternative site.

Trident would not be relocated. If Scotland frees itself of nuclear weapons, it seems that that will lead to London having to scrap Trident and its replacement. Relocating Trident is not like moving house. In fact, finding a site for Trident would be far harder than trying to shift a nuclear power station. Two new facilities would be needed: a submarine base to replace Faslane and a nuclear weapons’ depot to replace Coulport. The second would be the biggest problem. The original choice of site was Scotland, and possible locations that were rejected are now even less viable. Greenfield sites are scarce, and nuclear activity is permissible only on existing nuclear sites.

The Scottish Affairs Committee of the UK Government considered the issue in 2012. Nick Harvey, Armed Forces Minister, said that relocating Trident was “the least favoured option,” adding, ”It would take a very long time to complete and would cost a gargantuan sum of money”. He told them, “Coulport would be very difficult.” Rear Admiral Alabaster said, “it would be very difficult – in fact, I would almost use the word ‘inconceivable’ – to recreate the facilities necessary to mount the strategic deterrent, without the use of Faslane and Coulport.” The Committee concluded, “Identifying and recreating a suitable base to replace Faslane and Coulport would be highly problematic, very expensive, and fraught with political difficulties.”

Utilising a facility abroad was also discussed. The UK government response to the Scottish Affairs Committee summarised the problems, “Operations from any base in the USA or France would greatly compromise the independence of the deterrent and there would be significant political and legal obstacles.” The Scottish Affairs Committee in the House of Commons acknowledged that unilateral nuclear disarmament would be an inevitable consequence of independence, if a Scottish government pursued current SNP policy and insisted on safe removal of Trident. Rear Admiral John McAnally, former Commandant of the Royal College of Defence Studies, said “If Britain were expelled from Faslane…it could be forced into unilateral nuclear disarmament”.

In June 2012 Scottish CND published a report which argued that the Trident nuclear weapon system could be put beyond use within 7 days, that all nuclear warheads could be removed from Scotland within 2 years and that they could all be dismantled within 4 years. The Scottish Affairs Committee of the House of Commons said: “ We accept the analysis of Scottish CND that, with the cooperation of the Navy and the UK Government, this process would be both speedy and safe,” and the Scottish Government’s response was: “We are firmly committed to the earliest possible withdrawal of Trident from Scotland …. The suggested timetable is a welcome indication of how quickly Trident could be removed once Scotland has the powers to decide its own defence and security policy.” The removal of Trident might be even more rapid. If the appearance of an independent anti-nuclear Scotland was imminent, Washington might insist that the American-built missiles and the nuclear warheads, which contain American components, were removed from Faslane and Comport, and not left on the territory of an actively anti-nuclear sovereign state.

While the arms industries in England and America might try to use their muscle, we will have support from the many non-nuclear nations who are behind the global initiative for the Ban Treaty. It is wrong to suggest that if Britain abandoned Trident this would have no effect on the rest of the world. It could break the logjam and lead to wider progress towards nuclear disarmament. With a nuclear-free UK, France would have to reassess its expensive nuclear programme.

We must secure a constitutional clause for a future independent Scotland that puts nuclear weapons beyond the pale for any future Scottish Government. The Ban Treaty creates an imperative, and it underscores existing enthusiasm. Scotland’s commitment to nuclear disarmament is growing and becoming more articulate, a process which has gained traction since devolution and the establishment of a devolved parliament elected by proportional representation.

Scotland’s legal institutions and system of law was maintained after the union of the crowns and the parliaments of England and Scotland. It is distinct and separate from the rest of the UK. In 2009, a high-level legal conference was convened to consider Trident and International Law; Scotland’s Obligations. His excellency the late Judge Christopher Weeramantry, former vice-president of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) told the conference that while defence matters are reserved to The UK Parliament, the Scottish Parliament has international humanitarian and legal obligations that weapons of mass destruction violate. He said, “ Gross violations of international obligations aren’t excluded from the purview of the Scottish Parliament. The absence of power in the former area cannot cancel out its responsibilities in the latter.” He also asserted that non-violent resistance to nuclear weaponry could be justified in international law.

Anti-nuclear civil resistance is the right of every citizen of this planet. For the nuclear threat, attacking as it does every core concept of human rights, calls for urgent and universal action of its prevention.”

Non violent direct action has led to court cases where the legal status of the UK’s nuclear weapons sited in Scotland is challenged and reported. Tracking and recording the movements of warheads on public roads has led to many more people in Scotland becoming aware of the danger and the impunity in the UK Government’s actions in disregarding the will of the people.

Despite Prime Minister May’s view that the time for another referendum on Scottish independence is ‘not now’, the current political situation in the UK and the increased support for Jeremy Corbyn might lead to a new opportunity to vote on Scotland’s future sooner rather than later. The Ban Treaty will be a spur to that happening, as we hope that Scottish opposition to UK nuclear policy can be a spur to changing it.

Note: information from the late John Ainslie’s reports No Place for Trident and Disarming Trident are at (http://www.banthebomb.org/index.php/publications/reports) or the SCND office in Glasgow, his chapter in Reaching Critical Will’s Assuring Destruction for Ever and also from Trident and International Law – Scotland’s Obligations, published by Luath, Edinburgh. Info Janet Fenton janet@wordsandactions.scot 07795594573

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Day 9 of the nuclear ban treaty discussions

It’s our last day at the negotiations for most of the Scottish Delegates and by now you must be quite used to the format of our days and reports. I’ll therefore change the style of today’s article, but not before mentioning that our full delegation was interviewed by a Swedish journalist. Janet Fenton will be staying for the remainder of the negotiations and Bill Kidd MSP will join her next week. Please keep visiting the website for updates and articles.

Did you know?

  • Every county of United States has radioactive traces which date back to the Nevada atmospheric tests
  • Children are more harmed by radiation because their cells are developing more rapidly
  • Jelly fish babies are babies born with no form, bones or shape as an effect of the radiation exposure. Their mothers are often forbidden to see them because they will be too traumatised.
  • Marshallese women are afraid to give birth because of the possible effects of long term exposure to radiation from the nuclear tests
  • The harm of radiation to girls and women is, overall, roughly twice that of boys and men (more about nuclear weapons and gender balance here and here)
  • Victims of nuclear weapons who decide to share their stories need to relive their experiences and pain over and over again and are often called names or accused of lying which makes them abandon the battle. They do not beg for favours, they stand up for human rights and dignity

I would like to end this blog post with an exercise we did in one of the meetings.
We were asked to raise our hands if in the last two days we had made any mistakes, of any kind. We were then asked whether any of us had experienced any problems with technology or had any sort of technical issues with phones, computers, kitchen equipment and so on. We all raised our hands for both questions.

So please take a moment to reflect on this. It’s in our human nature to make mistakes and technology is made by us and bound to have malfunctions. This also applies to nuclear weapons and there is an extraordinary risk of an accidental launch or a serious mishap which could have terrible effects on humankind and our environment.

Flavia Tudoreanu & the rest of the Scottish Team

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Day 8 of the nuclear ban treaty discussions

The 8th day of the ban treaty negotiations gave rise to particular excitement as our Scottish team had the opportunity to organise our very own side event ‘Scotland can disarm the UK’! But first, our daily campaigner’s briefing got the day off to a great start with a summary of all the fantastic progress that has been made in- and outside the conference room since negotiations started last week. Positive highlights included facts, such as, that 125 countries have participated so far, that 75 percent of states have reflected civil society focus points when taking the floor, and that the revised draft of the preamble now includes a specific reference to human rights, as called for by civil society.

Nonetheless, with only 9 more days to go until states conclude a treaty, there is still much work to be done. In particular, we as civil society need to continue to stress the importance of: prohibiting finance of nuclear weapons and military planning, strengthening the current provisions on victim assistance and environmental remediation, and revising the preamble so as to include a reference to environmental law. For more information on the status of these topics on negotiations, you’ll have to watch this space, as negotiations have, for the time being, been taking place in an ‘off the record’ setting meaning we cannot report on the details of the discussions. However, we did have the unique opportunity of sitting in and listening and can say that while discussions were lively, parties maintained a positive attitude and displayed a clear intent to make this treaty as strong and successful as possible.

Meanwhile, Andy attended a side event contextualising the current negotiations through previous experience with the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions. He also made a breakthrough with his external lobbying activities and spoke to some length with the Tajikistan mission who expressed his support for the treaty. Yet another excellent example of the importance of civil society work and how every person can contribute to the cause.
At lunch time it was finally time for our presentation of Scotland’s position in the nuclear disarmament movement. We opened the session with a number of videos displaying Scottish efforts towards education (Trident Education Video), supportive statements from 5 parliamentarians (check our YouTube channel) and examples of Scottish direct action and campaigns. Our panel was live streamed and can be watched back on Scottish CND’s Facebook page. In addition to statements from each member of our Scottish team members, we were happy to boast contributions to our panel from Michael Orgel from Medact and Elizabeth Minor from ICAN UK, as well as international contributions from Susi Snyder from PAX detailing similarities between the Dutch and the Scottish position and Sharon Dolov emphasising the value of Scottish contribution in the international domain. We generated a lively discussion which led to questions which, due to time restrictions, we took beyond the conference room. We also provided a briefing which we can offer campaigners and delegates, a link to which you can find here (attachment will be added shortly).

Since negotiations continued to be off the record throughout the afternoon, Flavia had an informal meeting with other campaigners and a representative of the Romanian mission to UN and the rest attended another side event on ‘Threat and Deterrence’. This had contributions from Commander Robert Green and John Burroughs. The latter talked us through some of the problems in deterrence theory as well as providing insight into the legal context, while the former gave a personal account of his spectacular journey in which he started out as an operator of British nuclear weapons (now retired) to his presence today in New York, supporting us and all civil society here in promoting the creation of a universal ban on nuclear weapons. Together we will ban the bomb!

Best wishes,
Dagmar Medeiros & the rest of the Scottish team

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Day 7 of the nuclear ban discussions

The ICAN morning briefing reported that yesterday’s civil society input was well received. The states have to present their credentials to the secretariat to go on record as participating, and already 65 states have done so, with a further 40 + actively participating although they have not yet formally presented their ambassador letters to the secretariat.

The plenary session started with the delegates’ submissions on the final cluster. One talking point was on the relationship with the NPT in one paragraph and the Ecuadorean delegate eloquently made the case for deleting this article by quoting Tony Blair to UK parliament in 2007 when he said that the “NPT makes it absolutely clear that the UK can possess Nuclear Weapons”.

Other delegates, including Sharon Dolev and Matt Bolton for ICAN disapproved of allowing withdrawal from the treaty. A civil society representative from Kazakstan strongly supported the “inalienable right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy” and wanted it incorporated into the ban treaty. ICAN views this as potentially divisive.

The President then concluded the review and highlighted changes to the preamble that will be included in the redraft i.e, risks, Humanitarian consequences, threat to survival of human race, unacceptable harm, and the effects on indigenous people, Human rights Law, and threat of use. Paragraphs will be debated in an inter-delegate discussion but there is good convergence.

Flavia and Amy attended the side event “Examples of national implementation measures” which explored existing examples of nuclear weapons prohibitions including NZ Nuclear Free Zone, the Nuclear Free Amendment to the Philippines Constitution and the Federal Constitutional Act for a non-nuclear Austria. New Zealand NFZ has turned 30 this year and the man who was Defence Minister and opposed the policy is now a strong supporter.

Dagmar attended a side event on positive obligations “Protecting Rights, Remediating the Environment: Addressing the Harm from Nuclear Weapons”. Where she learned how the Treaty needs to take a rights based approach to the obligations of states; The language on the rights of victims to assistance and for environmental remediation needs to be clarified. The treaty should make it clear that responsibility must be for the affected states.

Andy, Amy & Flavia attended “The road back to the Nuclear Brink” side event. There has been a reduction in nuclear warheads since the height of the cold war which has levelled out in the last 10 years. There are 1,800 ‘alert’ warheads ready to be fired in less than five minutes. All the nuclear armed nuke states are in continuous cycles of making their weapons more efficient (range, flexibility, targeting, speed to target). The USA recently had exercises with bombers flying to launch points near Russia and in the Pacific which had not happened since the 1980’s. Nuke states have knowingly damaged their own people and environment with testing. The climate change effects of the fires caused by nuclear explosions putting vast amount of soot into the upper atmosphere. 0.1% of the yield of existing Nuclear Weapons could cause a reduction in growing conditions to starve billions.

The President decided that afternoon session was to allow informal interaction between the diplomats. Civil society delegates were (unusually) allowed to attend with the proviso that nothing was to be reported, quoted or tweeted and no photos or filming was allowed. We agreed to this condition.

Scotland’s delegation is now even better represented, with Michael Orgel joining the team.

Andy Hinton & the rest of the Scottish Delegation


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Video: Why Christians support the global nuclear ban

Christian groups  gather regularly  at Faslane to oppose Nuclear Weapons. In this Justice and Peace Scotland film faith leaders, including Archbishop Tartaglia, Bishop Nolan, Rev McLachlan and Rev Mumford, speak about the reasons for their opposition and their hopes for the coming Global Ban in achieving peace.

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Video: Patrick Harvie We should not tolerate WMD in the Modern world

Patrick Harvie MSP gives his support to the Nuclear Ban treaty negotiations in New York  and their relevance to us in Scotland.

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Day 6 of the nuclear ban treaty discussions

Day 6 began with our usual morning ICAN briefing, where we were presented with the exciting news that 125 Governments have participated in the negotiations so far- a very promising figure. It was agreed that in the negotiations of Articles 2-5 yesterday, there were a number of effective proposed amendments, calling for safeguarding measures to ably deal with future concerns, as well as pathways to attract nuclear states to the treaty. South Africa circulated a text to incorporate these ideas, which, although it was by no means perfect, was certainly a basis to build on in due course.

In the morning session of negotiations, we saw the Delegate from New Zealand take over the role of Chair, as Vice President of the Negotiations, and discussions began with the concluding remarks on the Article 6. Notably, Egypt, with support from other states, called an emphasis on States who used or tested weapons to bear the primary responsibility in victim assistance, and other countries to in turn, to provide assistance where possible. Moving to the next cluster of Article 7-10, discussions included the need for mandatory reporting, which would include regular feedback as to how countries were responding to the obligations of the treaty, and it was also remarked by Austria that this would provide a means of best practise sharing. During these negotiations, once again, Andy participated in external lobbying activities, making calls to countries who are yet to participate in negotiations.

The lunch-time side event today, which was attended by our full team, was entitled, ‘Prohibiting nuclear weapons: democratic strategies to take forward and implement the nuclear ban in nuclear-armed and umbrella states’. The event was organised and chaired by Dr Rebecca Johnson, Executive Director of Acronym, who also called upon Janet to highlight Scotland’s position in light of the panellist’s discussions. Most notably for our Scottish delegation, the panel line-up included Caroline Lucas, Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales. Although acting in a civil society capacity, Caroline provided a sense of optimism in her Parliamentary presence, which given the significant absence of an official UK delegate in the negotiations, was particularly important. It was both refreshing and enlightening to hear her comment on the illogical and unjustifiable arguments from the opposition, and the real hope for civil society to put pressure on the Government, given we have both evidence and public opinion on our side. This latter remark was in reference to the recent finding by YouGov that 75% of the population believed the UK should be attending the negotiations. Joining Caroline in the discussions were current and former MPs from the Netherlands and Germany. The Netherlands remarked that the Dutch delegation was only attending the negotiations because of the pressure put onto Parliamentarians from NGO and civil society groups, and that strength and progress comes from collaboration between these groups and Parliamentarians, a sentiment which was echoed by both Caroline and the German representative. Furthermore, Caroline, along with the other panellists, spoke of the importance in putting motions and questions forward to Government, irrespective of the likelihood of rejection, as it will help to keep the topic in Parliament discussion, as well as potentially increasing media coverage, which at present is next to nothing.

Planning is underway for our own Scottish Side Event also, which takes place on Thursday. Each member of our Scottish team will be taking an active role, as we aim to better educate both civil society groups from other countries, as well as hopefully delegates, of the situation in Scotland and the potential power we can have as a reluctant host state. We are currently putting together leaflets to market the event, compiling our videos of support from Scottish Parliamentary Figures, and gathering together our talking points and specialised topics which, we hope that altogether, should make for an informative and fruitful event.

The afternoon session of negotiations meant a further continuation of discussions regarding Article 7-10. Much discussion circulated around the nature of follow-up meetings, the frequency of these and the necessity in holding them. In line with earlier suggestions from ICAN to strengthen the role of civil societies in future meetings, amendments were proposed to ensure the treaty stated that civil society groups ‘should’ attend future meetings as opposed to the current draft writing which states civil society ‘might’ be invited to attend.

Flavia. Janet and I are due to attend the Youth Reception for Nuclear Abolition tonight. After having attended the Youth Collaboration event yesterday, it will be interesting to attend this event in order to further discussions as to what we, as a global network, can achieve in our respective countries. We are keen to gather ideas, advice and suggestions from all other global groups, so that when we return back to Scotland, we are in an able position to discuss our experiences, and competently collaborate with others which in turn, should allow us to increase youth engagement on this hugely important topic.

Amy Christison & the rest of the Scottish Team

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Day 5 of the nuclear ban treaty discussions

Monday morning was anything but dull at the United Nations in New York as we started the week with an action packed programme. We were definitely glad to have a team presence so that we could split up and participate in all the events to the fullest.

The day started with the ICAN strategy meeting, which we attended together, where we recapped last week’s activities and highlighted the two issues of military planning and finance as key issues for us to focus on today. The team then split up with Janet sitting in on the negotiations, Andy volunteering to participate in external lobbying activities, making calls to Bangladesh,Ethiopia, Gabon, Papua New Guinea, St. KItts and Nevis, South Sudan, Tajikistan while Amy, Flavia and I attended a youth working group where we exchanged ideas about youth engagement in nuclear disarmament issues.

Meanwhile, Isabel attended a screening of ‘Paper Lanterns’ a touching documentary that presents the relationships which developed between the families of two of the prisoners of war who perished in Hiroshima and the Japanese gentleman who had been there on August 1945. This man extended a hand of friendship to provide closure for the families of the deceased by relentlessly seeking the truth of their deaths.

Towards the end of the morning we headed back outside to support anti-nuclear bomb activists protesting the American boycott off the negotiations taking place outside the American mission. The non-violent civil disobedience act managed to attract some media attention, which has been notably lacking throughout the negotiations so far and ended when more than a dozen activists were arrested. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-nuclear-un-usa-idUSKBN19A2KB

Following this, we attended the side event ‘Global Call of Hibakusha’ which highlighted common themes in the experience of nuclear weapons victims. Karina Lester spoke of the Australian aboriginal’s suffering following nuclear testing on their grounds and her family’s journey for acknowledgement from the government. Roland Oldham spoke with passion about the impact of nuclear testing in French Polynesia, accusing the nuclear weapons states of crimes against humanity. The session also saw three Hibakusha sharing their memories of the bombing and the psychological and physical suffering caused by this experience which continues to follow them throughout their life.

What connected these speakers’ contributions was that each had experienced disruption of social structures, lack of medical care, lack of communication and lack of acknowledgement of their suffering and needs from nuclear weapon states. The survivors delivered three million petition signatures to the UN high representative for disarmament.

The afternoon saw us back in the negotiations room where discussion had moved on to the phrasing of the obligations of the treaty. As participating countries discussed the framework that should lead us towards a nuclear weapons free world, disagreements as to the appropriate balance between clarity and need for assurance of effective procedures towards disarmament started to emerge. Nonetheless, the tone of the negotiations remained positive and we look forward to receiving a revised draft soon.

The end of the day found us in a local pub, a gathering of merry activists satisfied with a good day’s work, raising a glass in celebration of Flavia’s birthday. Cheers!

Warm wishes, Dagmar Medeiros &  the rest of the Scottish team




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